Aspectos neurocognitivos do alcoolismo

Autores

  • Leonardo Ferreira Caixeta CERNE, Centro de Referência em Neuropsiquiatria e Neuropsicologia, Hospital das Clínicas, EBSERH, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5736-9058
  • Leonardo da Silva Prestes Residência Médica em Psiquiatria, Secretaria Estadual de Saúde, Hospital Geral de Goiânia, HGG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1239-1112
  • Tiago Batista de Oliveira Pós-Graduando, Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Goiás, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil https://orcid.org/0009-0003-0352-1565
  • Erika Aparecida Silveira Pós-Graduanda, Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Goiás, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8839-4520
  • Maria Alves Barbosa Professora Voluntária, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Goiás, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0861-9655
  • Leonardo Baldaçara Professor, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Palmas, TO, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5201-8515

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25118/2763-9037.2024.v14.1120

Palavras-chave:

alcoolismo, cognição, demência, encefalopatia de Wernicke, sindrome de Korsakoff

Resumo

Introdução: O uso prolongado e excessivo de álcool pode acarretar danos cerebrais estruturais e funcionais, ocasionando déficits cognitivos. As repercussões cognitivas mais conhecidas do alcoolismo foram descritas por psiquiatras: a síndrome de Wernicke (SW), a amnésia de Korsakoff (AK), e a Demência Associada ao Alcoolismo (DAA). Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa acerca dos  aspectos cognitivos relacionados ao alcoolismo, com ênfase na DAA. Resultados: A SW é composta por uma tríade de oftalmoplegia, marcha atáxica e alterações no estado mental. A AK é uma síndrome residual após a SW, caracterizada por amnésia global, confabulações e alterações de comportamento. A DAA é uma síndrome orgânica com quadro de grave disfunção cognitiva, disfunção executiva, dificuldade no controle emocional e comprometimento da memória. Ainda atualmente há dúvidas quanto à etiopatogenia, status nosológico, prevalência e critérios diagnósticos para a DAA, devido à dificuldade de avaliação e a diversos fatores de confusão, portanto a compreensão atual dessa forma de demência permanece limitada. Conclusões: A DAA é uma forma de demência geralmente pré-senil e até certo ponto reversível, podendo ser classificada do ponto de vista neuroanatômico como córtico-subcortical e se manifestando clinicamente com sintomas amnésticos, frontais-disexecutivos, cerebelares e subcorticais. Até que tenhamos uma maior compreensão dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos da DAA, é altamente improvável que seja desenvolvido um conjunto único e reprodutível de critérios diagnósticos.

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Biografia do Autor

Leonardo Ferreira Caixeta, CERNE, Centro de Referência em Neuropsiquiatria e Neuropsicologia, Hospital das Clínicas, EBSERH, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil

Leonardo da Silva Prestes, Residência Médica em Psiquiatria, Secretaria Estadual de Saúde, Hospital Geral de Goiânia, HGG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil

Tiago Batista de Oliveira, Pós-Graduando, Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Goiás, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil

Erika Aparecida Silveira, Pós-Graduanda, Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Goiás, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil

Maria Alves Barbosa, Professora Voluntária, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Goiás, UFG, Goiânia, GO, Brasil

Leonardo Baldaçara, Professor, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Palmas, TO, Brasil

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2024-04-10

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Caixeta LF, Prestes L da S, Oliveira TB de, Silveira EA, Barbosa MA, Baldaçara L. Aspectos neurocognitivos do alcoolismo. Debates em Psiquiatria [Internet]. 10º de abril de 2024 [citado 24º de junho de 2024];14:1-27. Disponível em: https://revistardp.org.br/revista/article/view/1120

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