Impactos desenvolvimentais de saúde mental e aprendizagem em crianças, adolescentes, pais e professores pós-fechamento das escolas: uma revisão sistemática

Autores

  • Rochele Paz Fonseca Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6767-8439
  • Victoria Augusto Guinle Discente de Psicologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PUC, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6532-3199
  • Valentina Fiorioli Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, PUC, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4502-0326
  • Nicole Prigol Dalfovo Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, PUC, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4846-8668
  • Mariana Guedes Pedrini Uebel Médica Psiquiatra, Clínica Particular, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil
  • Larissa Valency Enéas Nasce Criança, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5932-9802

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.25118/2763-9037.2022.v12.416

Palavras-chave:

fechamento das escolas, atraso de desenvolvimento, dificuldades de aprendizagem, COVID-19

Resumo

Introdução: O fechamento das escolas devido às restrições da pandemia da COVID-19 acarretou impactos individuais e sociais cada vez mais relatados. Alunos, pais e professores tiveram consequências associadas ao distanciamento escolar predominantemente negativas, com alguns desfechos positivos, mas ainda não sistematicamente mapeados. Objetivo: Promover uma caracterização dos impactos do fechamento das escolas na aprendizagem, nos desenvolvimentos cognitivo e socioemocional e na saúde mental de crianças, pais e professores, por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Métodos: Buscaram-se abstracts nas bases de dados PubMed, Scopus e PsycINFO com a sintaxe dos construtos “estudantes, pais ou professores”, “desenvolvimento cognitivo, socioecioemocional, saúde mental ou desempenho escolar”, e “COVID-19 e fechamento das escolas” entre 2021 e 2022. Resultados: De 622 estudos iniciais, 86 artigos foram incluídos pós-concordância de 100% entre três juízes. Como principais desfechos relacionados ao fechamento das escolas, crianças e adolescentes demonstraram maiores níveis de ansiedade, hiperatividade e desatenção, prejuízos na cognição geral, desenvolvimento motor e quedas significativas de prontidão e de desempenho escolar. Pais apresentaram um aumento em níveis de depressão, ideação suicida, ansiedade e estresse, enquanto professores relataram maiores índices de estresse e burnout. Conclusão: Estes achados apontam a necessidade da elaboração de ações privadas e de políticas públicas em prol da redução dos prejuízos decorrentes do fechamento prolongado das escolas. A principal diretriz norteadora de futuras decisões emergenciais é que as escolas sejam as últimas a fecharem e as primeiras a reabrirem, como uma ação neuro e psicoprotetora.

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Stein LM, Giacomoni CH, Fonseca RP. Teste de desempenho escolar - TDE II. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Vetor Editora; [S.d]. https://www.vetoreditora.com.br/produto/colecao-tde-ii-teste-de-desempenho-escolar-2-edicao-71037

Salem AAGG, Ferreira da Silva P, Felizardo D, Holz MR, Fonseca RP. Does the frequency of reading and writing habits contribute to executive functions, intelligence, and learning in adolescents with healthy development? Appl Neuropsychol Child. 2022 Feb 7;1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2022.2026222 - PMid:35129415

Gori M, Schiatti L, Amadeo MB. Masking emotions: face masks impair how we read emotions. Front Psychol. Sec. Emotion Science. 2021 May 25;12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.669432 - PMid:34113297 - PMCid:PMC8185341

Stajduhar A, Ganel T, Avidan G, Rosenbaum RS, Freud E. Face masks disrupt holistic processing and face perception in school-age children. Cogn Res Princ Implic. 2022 Dec 7;7(1):9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-022-00360-2 - PMid:35128574 - PMCid:PMC8818366

Elharake JA, Akbar F, Malik AA, Gilliam W, Omer SB. Mental health impact of COVID-19 among children and college students: a systematic review. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2022 Jan 11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01297-1 - PMid:35013847 - PMCid:PMC8747859

Truong TL, Weber A. Intelligibility and recall of sentences spoken by adult and child talkers wearing face masks. J Acoust Soc Am. 2021;150(3):1674-81. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0006098 - PMid:34598631 - PMCid:PMC8487070

Yi H, Pingsterhaus A, Song W. Effects of wearing face masks while using different speaking styles in noise on speech intelligibility during the COVID-19 pandemic. Front Psychol. Sec. Language Sciences 2021 Jun 28;12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.682677 - PMid:34295288 PMCid:PMC8292133

Smith J, Levickis P, Neilson R, Mensah F, Goldfeld S, Bryson H. Prevalence of language and pre‐literacy difficulties in an Australian cohort of 5‐year‐old children experiencing adversity. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2021;56(2):389-401. https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12611 - PMid:33704873

Psyridou M, Tolvanen A, Jong PF, Lerkkanen M-K, Poikkeus A-M, Torppa M. Developmental profiles of reading fluency and reading comprehension from grades 1 to 9 and their early identification. Dev Psychol. 2021;57(11):1840-54. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000976 - PMid:34914449

Kozlov M. Does Omicron hit kids harder? Scientists are trying to find out: children are making up a larger proportion of patients hospitalized with COVID than in previous infection waves. Nature. 2022 Feb 4. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00309-x

REFERÊNCIAS DO ANEXO B

Murray TS, Malik AA, Shafiq M, Lee A, Harris C, Klotz M, Humphries JE, Patel KM, Wilkinson D, Yildirim I, Elharake JA, Diaz R, Reyes C, Omer SB, Gilliam WS. Association of child masking with COVID-19-related closures in US Childcare Programs. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(1):e2141227. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.41227 PMid:35084484 - PMCid:PMC8796014

Murray CJL. COVID-19 will continue but the end of the pandemic is near. Lancet. 2022;399(10323):417-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00100-3

Fonseca RP, Sganzerla GC, Enéas LV. Fechamento das escolas na pandemia de COVID-19: impacto socioemocional, cognitivo e de aprendizagem. Debates em Psiquiatr. 2020;10(4):28-37. https://doi.org/10.25118/2763-9037.2020.v10.23

Stein LM, Giacomoni CH, Fonseca RP. Teste de desempenho escolar - TDE II. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Vetor Editora; 2019. https://www.vetoreditora.com.br/produto/colecao-tde-ii-teste-de-desempenho-escolar-2-edicao-71037

Engzell P, Frey A, Verhagen MD. Learning loss due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic. SocArXiv, 29 Oct. 2020; https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/ve4z7 - PMid:33144510 - PMCid:PMC7682564

Salem AAGG, Ferreira da Silva P, Felizardo D, Holz MR, Fonseca RP. Does the frequency of reading and writing habits contribute to executive functions, intelligence, and learning in adolescents with healthy development? Appl Neuropsychol Child. 2022 Feb 7;1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/21622965.2022.2026222 - PMid:35129415

Gori M, Schiatti L, Amadeo MB. Masking emotions: face masks impair how we read emotions. Front Psychol. Sec. Emotion Science. 2021 May 25;12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.669432 - PMid:34113297 - PMCid:PMC8185341

Stajduhar A, Ganel T, Avidan G, Rosenbaum RS, Freud E. Face masks disrupt holistic processing and face perception in school-age children. Cogn Res Princ Implic. 2022 Dec 7;7(1):9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-022-00360-2 - PMid:35128574 PMCid:PMC8818366

Elharake JA, Akbar F, Malik AA, Gilliam W, Omer SB. Mental health impact of COVID-19 among children and college students: a systematic review. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2022 Jan 11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-021-01297-1 PMid:35013847 - PMCid:PMC8747859

Truong TL, Weber A. Intelligibility and recall of sentences spoken by adult and child talkers wearing face masks. J Acoust Soc Am. 2021;150(3):1674-81. https://doi.org/10.1121/10.0006098 - PMid:34598631 - PMCid:PMC8487070

Yi H, Pingsterhaus A, Song W. Effects of wearing face masks while using different speaking styles in noise on speech intelligibility during the COVID-19 pandemic. Front Psychol. Sec. Language Sciences 2021 Jun 28;12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.682677 - PMid:34295288 PMCid:PMC8292133

Smith J, Levickis P, Neilson R, Mensah F, Goldfeld S, Bryson H. Prevalence of language and pre‐literacy difficulties in an Australian cohort of 5‐year‐old children experiencing adversity. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2021;56(2):389-401. https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6984.12611 - PMid:33704873

Psyridou M, Tolvanen A, Jong PF, Lerkkanen M-K, Poikkeus A-M, Torppa M. Developmental profiles of reading fluency and reading comprehension from grades 1 to 9 and their early identification. Dev Psychol. 2021;57(11):1840-54. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000976 - PMid:34914449

Kozlov M. Does Omicron hit kids harder? Scientists are trying to find out: children are making up a larger proportion of patients hospitalized with COVID than in previous infection waves. Nature. 2022 Feb 4. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-00309-x

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2022-11-09

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Fonseca RP, Guinle VA, Fiorioli V, Dalfovo NP, Uebel MGP, Enéas LV. Impactos desenvolvimentais de saúde mental e aprendizagem em crianças, adolescentes, pais e professores pós-fechamento das escolas: uma revisão sistemática. Debates em Psiquiatria [Internet]. 9º de novembro de 2022 [citado 7º de dezembro de 2022];12:1-87. Disponível em: https://revistardp.org.br/revista/article/view/416

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